How a car’s electrical system works

The electrical system of a car is designed to generate and transmit electrical energy to various systems and devices of a car.

The car’s electrical system includes the following components: current sources, current consumers, control elements, and electrical wiring.

All the aforementioned components of the electrical system are connected to a single on-board network of the car.” Let`s go over each of these components in detail.

Current Sources

Current sources are the main components of a car’s electrical system. The battery provides the initial power, while the generator keeps the charge flowing. In the end, they ensure that the car’s various systems and devices have the energy they need to operate smoothly and efficiently.

  1. Battery;
  2. Generator.

Current consumers

The current consumers of a car are the energy-hungry devices that provide normal functioning of the vehicle. For example, the starter cranks the motor, the headlights illuminate the road, also the conditioner needs the energy, all these devices required a specific amount of power. These devices are current consumers. All these devices include to the following car systems.

The ignition system is used to create and deliver a spark discharge to the spark plugs of an internal combustion engine. There are three types of ignition systems:

  • Contact;
  • Contactless;
  • Microprocessor-based.

The engine starting system is responsible for starting the engine by creating a certain rotational speed of the crankshaft.

The lighting and signaling system consumes electrical energy and provides the operation of the front and rear lights, turn signals, fog lights, and marker lights. The control and measuring instruments ensure control of the technical parameters of the vehicle’s operation and allow the driver to monitor them.

Control Elements

Control devices ensure the coordinated operation of the onboard system of the car. These devices include:

  • Electronic control units (ECUs) – a central control unit and control units for individual units such as the engine, suspension, and braking systems.
  • Fuse boxes.
  • Relay blocks.

Electrical wiring

There are single-wire and two-wire electrical wiring schemes. In a single-wire scheme, power is supplied via a single positive wire, and the car body serves as the negative. In a two-wire scheme, the negative wire is connected to the body at the nearest point. Plug connectors Mounting block, fuse block. Multiplex wiring.

Author: delfi

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