Purpose of brake system
The brake system is design to reduce the speed of a vehicle or stop a vehicle completely, as well as to keep the vehicle stationary. The process of braking a moving car is to create artificial resistance to this movement. Typically, reducing the speed of the car until it stops completely is done by creating braking forces in the contact of the wheels with the road, directed in the direction opposite to the movement. Braking forces are necessary to keep the car in place.
Braking force is created by braking a wheel with a special, usually frictional, device – a braking mechanism. Highest braking performance is required in emergency cases. This is what the brake system should be designed for, although they make up no more than 1-3% of the total number of uses of the brake system.
Types of car brakes
- Service brake system
- Emergency brake system
- Auxiliary brake system
- Automatic brake system
Service brake system
The service brake system allows the driver to reduce the speed of the car and stop it during the motion.
How do car brakes work diagram:
1 – a brake disk of a wheel; 2 – a bracket of the brake mechanism of the front wheels; 3 – front brake circuit; 4 – the main brake cylinder; 5 – a tank with an emergency brake fluid level sensor; 6 – vacuum amplifier; 7 – a pusher; 8 – a brake pedal; 9 – brake light switch; 10 – brake pads of the rear wheels; 11 – brake cylinder of the rear wheels; 12 – a back contour; 13 – a casing of a half shaft of the back bridge; 14 – load spring; 15 – pressure regulator; 16 – back cables; 17 – equalizer; 18 – front (central) cable; 19 – the parking brake lever; 20 – signaling device for emergency drop in brake fluid level; 21 – a switch of a signaling device of a parking brake; 22 – brake pad of the front wheels.
Emergency brake system
Emergency brake system allows the driver to reduce the speed of the car and stop a car when a malfunction of the working brake system. In order to simplify the design, a separate (autonomous) emergency system is practically not used. Typically, its role is played by the remaining serviceable parts (drive circuits) of the working brake system or a specially designed parking brake system. Often on large vehicles, both of these technical solutions are used simultaneously to increase reliability.
Parking brake system
The parking brake system allows you to keep the car stationary on an inclined surface and in the absence of a driver.
Auxiliary brake system
The auxiliary brake system is designed for long-term maintenance of a constant speed, mainly on long descents. The friction brake mechanisms used in the rest of the braking systems overheat during prolonged operation and drastically reduce braking performance. Therefore, on some types of vehicles (buses, heavy trucks), auxiliary mechanisms, so-called retarders, are used to maintain safe speed on long descents.
Automatic brake system
Automatic brake system – equipment that automatically brakes the trailer when it is accidentally separated from the tractor.