The suspension of all wheels is independent, torsion bar-and-arm one, with hydraulic telescopic double-acting shock absorbers. The rear-wheel suspension consists of an axle, arms, torsion bars, and shock absorbers.
Steering knuckles (cast of malleable iron) are installed on pivots in yokes of front arms. Wheel speed reducers assembled with brakes are secured to the steering knuckles (in the rear suspension, directly to the arms).
The load-carrying units of the suspension are welded hollow axles secured by their brackets to body frame girders with bolts through rubber gaskets. Torsion bars are installed into the axle. The arms with bearings and cermet bushings with helical grooves for lubrication are mounted on the ends of the axle and torsion bars. The torsion bar is spline-joined with the axle and arm hub and is held by bolt from an axial displacement in the axle. The arm is prevented from coming off the axle by washer secured to the torsion bar by bolt. Locking bolt holds the arm on the torsion bar from a displacement towards the arm protecting ring, protecting the latter from a breakdown. In the event of a break of the torsion bar, the arm is prevented from coming off the axle by limiting washer. The upward travel of the wheel is restricted by suspension bumper, the downward one – by limiter.
Bushings of the arm are lubricated with grease fed into space through lubrication fitting. The inner spaces of the arm hub and axle are protected from water, dust and dirt by rubber ring and gasket.
Bores in the steering knuckles accommodate bushing casings is assembly with bushings (bushings from a bronze band, with a helical groove for lubrication) and stoppers, pressed in so that they bear against seal casing. Pivots are fitted into the casings with the bushings and into the arm yoke heads. The pivot is locked from rotation by pin, and from lubrication fitting through passages in the pivot. The working surfaces of the joint are protected from water, dust, and dirt by seals fitted into casings; the upper seal is closed with dirt-protecting ring.
An axial clearance between the bushing casings and pivots resulting from their wear is eliminated by reducing the thickness of the set of adjusting shims.
The wheel turning angles are set by means of adjusting bolts.
The torsion bars are fabricated from a high-quality alloy steel. The surface of the bar is reinforced by peening. After the heat treatment, the torsion bars are twisted.
Answer the questions and control himself
- What are the components of the rear-wheel suspension?
- What are the steering knuckles made of?
- Where are wheel speed reducers with brake located?
- What are the load-carrying units of the suspension?
- What is installed on the axles and torsion bars?
- What does the arm serve for?
- What restricts the movement of the wheel?
- What protects the arm hub and axle from outside influence?
- Is it necessary to protect working surfaces? Why?
- What should we do if the bushing casings and pivots are worn?
- What regulates the turning angles of the wheels?
- What are the torsion bars made of?
- When can we twist the torsion bars?
Front wheel suspension:
a— lines of bearing surfaces of pivots 2 with pivot bushing casings 6; b — space filled with grease in lubrication of arm bushings; 1, 46* — lubrication fitting; 2 — steering knuckle pivot; 3 — pivot cover plate; 4 — adjusting shims; 5 — steering knuckle pivot bushing; 6 — steering knuckle pivot bushing casing; 7 — stopper; 8 — seal; 9 — seal casing; 10 — steering knuckle; // — dirt-protecting ring of steering knuckle pivot; 12, 23*, 26*. 28*, 36*, 42*, 50*, 57 — spring washer; 13 — cover plate fastening special bolt; /‘/-—pin; 15 — shock absorber; 16* — bumper fastening clip; 17* -wheel travel limiter bumper; 18* — wheel travel limiter; 19* — bumper; 20* — shock absorber fastening bolt; 21* — bushing; 22*, 27*, 39* — spacer; 24*, 56 — nut; 25* — wheel travel limiter fastening bolt; 29* — bumper fastening bolt; 30* — special washer; 31* — bumper bearing washer; 32*, 51*, 63 — lock nut; 33* — torsion bar bolt; 34*, 54 — torsion bars; 35* —gasket; 37* — special suspension ‘fastening bolt; 38* — limiting washer fastening bolt; 40* — suspension arm protecting ring; 41* — arm axial displacement limiting washer; 43* — suspension arm inner bushing; 44 — suspension arm; 45 — suspension axle; 47* — torsion bar protecting gasket; 48* — torsion bar special washer; 49* — special washer fastening bolt; 52* — special bolt; 53* — suspension arm outer bushing; 55, 58 — washer; 59 — shock absorber bottom end fastening bracket; 60 — locking plate; 61 — bracket fastening bolt; 62 —- wheel turning angle adjusting bolt