The layout of the car determines and provides for the location of the power unit, the number of drive axles and their location, car body type, number of doors, trunk location.
There are several characteristic layout schemes of the car among which:
The classic scheme (rear-wheel drive) – the power unit of the car is made in a longitudinal arrangement, the rear drive axle is installed, and the drive is carried out by means of torque transmission with cardan shafts to the main gear with differential, the trunk is installed in the rear of the body. Typical representatives of the classic layout are all cars of domestic production.
Front-wheel drive layout – the power unit is installed in the front longitudinal or transverse arrangement, the front axle is front, the drive is carried out by shafts from the main transmission with differentials, the trunk in the rear of the body.
Rear-engine layout scheme – a power unit of a rear longitudinal or transverse arrangement, the rear axle is rear, the drive is carried out by shafts from the main gear with a differential, the trunk is in the front of the body.
By the number of body volumes are divided:
- for three-volume (Fig. 1) – engine compartment; salon; trunk, which is typical for limousines, sedans, coupes and convertibles;
- on two-volume (see. Fig. 2,3) – engine compartment; Salon, when the volume of the trunk and the cabin are combined, which is typical for station wagons and hatchbacks;
- for single-volume ones (see Fig. 4) – the engine compartment, the passenger compartment and the trunk are combined into a single unit, which is typical for minivans with a central location of the power unit.
By the number of seats, cars are divided into two-seater, sports type; four-, five-, seven-seater – family and executive and especially small class cars with the number of seats according to the “2 + 2” formula, when two front seats are full, and two rear seats are for children.
An analysis of the development of the layout schemes of the model range of cars, which includes 1387 models, showed that the front-wheel drive layout (59.7%) and the classic layout (32.6%) occupy a leading position. A promising direction can be considered the spread of four-wheel drive cars. The rear-engine layout has practically no prospects for further development.
Once there was a time when in the process of switching from rear-wheel-drive vehicles to front-wheel-drive drivers they could not get used to driving a car, which led to an increase in the number of accidents on the roads.