Car Suspension: how it works, classification, construction, types

Before we talk details, I want you to study how the car suspension works. Suspension is a part of a car that carries relative motion between vehicle and its wheels.

Suspension systems

Car suspension

There are three main suspension system: guide device, elastic elements and device that damp the vibrations.

The car suspension carries out an elastic connection of the frame or body of the car with the axles or directly with the wheels, perceiving vertical forces and ensuring a smooth ride. In addition, it serves to absorb the longitudinal and transverse forces acting between the reference plane and the frame or vehicle body, as well as reactive moments.

Suspension elements

Guide device

The guide device determines the kinematics of the wheels relative to the frame and the car body, and provides the transmission of longitudinal forces (pushing and braking), lateral forces, and reactive moments.

Elastic element

The elastic element is used to transmit vertical forces and cushion shock when driving on uneven roads, providing the necessary smoothness. Sometimes, additional elastic elements introduced into the car’s suspension to keep the car body from rolling when cornering (stabilizers).


Damper (device that damps the vibrations) – creates forces of resistance to fluctuations of the car and transfers mechanical energy of fluctuations in thermal.

In some car suspensions, a single elastic element acts as all three suspension elements (leaf spring).

Suspension types

Author: delfi

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