Engine is an energy-powered machine that converts thermal energy into mechanical work. Engine is a complex machine built to convert heat from burning gas into the force that turns the road wheels. These engine are named heates. There are many kind of engines like electric motors, pneumatic motors and other. This article is about internal combustion engine construction. Internal combustion engine consists of next main parts: Crank-mechanism, Valve operating mechanism, cooling system, lubrication system, fuel system, ignition system and starting system.
Engine has two main mechanisms and 5 engine systems:
Crank-mechanism – transforms back-and-forth motion of the pistons to the crankshaft rotation;
Valve operating mechanism – is opening and closing the intake and exhaust valve in time.
Five main engine systems:
Engine cooling system – is cooling engine down to operating temperature;
Engine oil system – is reducing friction between surfaces by distribute oil to the moving parts which rub against each other;
Engine fuel system – is responsible for delivering fuel to the engine;
Engine ignition system – generates a spark to ignite a fuel-air mixture in spark ignition internal combustion engines;
Engine starting system – used to make an engine start.
There are main types of engine.
Types of engine
Automobile engine construction
The automobile engine is a heat engine. The heat engines in modern vehicles are internal combustion engines. All engines have main working parts and assist parts.
The engine must be a robust structure to withstand heavy workload. Therefore, it consists of two basic parts: engine cylinder block and the cylinder head.
The main parts are:
- Engine block;
- Push rod;
- Cylinder head, usually holding in-let and exhaust valves;
- Motor cooling jacket;
- Connecting rod;
- The crankshaft.
One cylinder engine scheme
One cylinder engine construction
The internal combustion engine consists of mechanisms and systems perform different functions. The one-cylinder engine construction shows in Figure 1.
There are a piston with piston rings, connect to crankshaft through connecting rod. Piston moves forward and back by the time crankshaft rotation. In this time camshaft is rotation provides opening and closing inlet and outlet valves in timely manner through
parts of valve mechanism (push rod, valve rocker).